m_kalashnikov (m_kalashnikov) wrote,
m_kalashnikov
m_kalashnikov

Росси снова устроил испытания своего реактора: 32 дня проверки

Максим Калашников: мне пишет эксперт.
"Данные были собраны в течение 32 дней в марте 2014 года. Реактор "рабочая точка" (E-Cat) была поставлена около 1260 град. в первой половине испытаний и около 1400 °C во второй половине этого срока. Измеренный энергетический баланс между входом и выходом тепла дал COP-коэффициент около 3,2 и 3,6 для 1260 и 1400 oC соответственно. Общая чистая энергия, полученная в течение 32 дней - была около 1,5 МВт. Это количество энергии гораздо больше, чем можно получить от любого известного химического источника в небольшом объеме реактора.
В состав рабочего тела входит никель, литий, алюминий в виде порошка 230 нм, 670 нм, 395 нм. Изотопный состав лития и никеля существенно изменился.
Измерялись гамма-излучение, нейтроны. Похоже, есть незначительное превышение по нейтронам, но в пределах погрешности. Я думаю с этим надо подробно разбираться. По моему там видно явное превышение нейтронов над фоном.
Можно поставить жирный крест на всех сомнениях по поводу неточности измерения избыточного тепла и его ядерного происхождения!..."
Но мое мнение: никакого обвала цен на нефть не будет. Росси на Западе упорно не замечают. Иначе работы по И-кэту шли бы на всех парах. Так что обойдемся без соплей. НТР в мире давно идет лишь по двум направлениям: бионанотех и Ай-Ти. Все остальное как бы не существует. От нефти Запад отказываться не хочет. А остальные ему лишь слепо подражают.

Строки из присланного мне отчета (заключение):

Observation of abundant heat production from a reactor device
and of isotopic changes in the fuel
Giuseppe Levi
Bologna University, Bologna, Italy
Evelyn Foschi
Bologna, Italy
Bo Höistad, Roland Pettersson and Lars Tegnér
Uppsala University, Uppsala, Sweden
Hanno Essén
Royal Institute of Technology, Stockholm, Sweden


9. Summary and concluding remarks
A 32-day test was performed on a reactor termed E-Cat, capable of producing heat by exploiting an unknown
reaction primed by heating and some electro-magnetic stimulation. In the past years, the same collaboration
has performed similar measurements on reactors operating in like manner, but differing both in shape and
construction materials from the one studied here. Those tests have indicated an anomalous production of heat,
which prompted us to attempt a new, longer test. The purpose of this longer measurement was to verify
whether the production of heat is reproducible in a new improved test set-up, and can go on for a significant
amount of time. In order to assure that the reactor would operate for a prolonged length of time, we chose to
supply power to the E-Cat in such a way as to keep it working in a stable and controlled manner. For this
reason, the performances obtained do not reflect the maximum potential of the reactor, which was not an
object of study here.
Our measurement, based on calculating the power emitted by the reactor through radiation and convection,
gave the following results: the net production of the reactor after 32 days’ operation was (5825 ± 10%) [MJ],
the density of thermal energy (if referred to an internal charge weighing 1 g) was (5.8 ∙ 106 ± 10%) [MJ/kg],
while the density of power was equal to (2.1 ∙ 106 ± 10%) [W/kg]. These values place the E-Cat beyond any
other known conventional source of energy. Even if one conservatively repeats the same calculations with
reference to the weight of the whole reactor rather than that of its internal charge, one gets results confirming
the non-conventional nature of the form of energy generated by the E-Cat, namely (1.3 ∙ 104 ± 10%) [MJ/kg]
for thermal energy density, and (4.7 ∙ 103 ± 10%) [W/kg] for power density.
The quantity of heat emitted constantly by the reactor and the length of time during which the reactor was
operating rule out, beyond any reasonable doubt, a chemical reaction as underlying its operation. This is
emphasized by the fact that we stand considerably more than two order of magnitudes from the region of the
Ragone plot occupied by conventional energy sources.
The fuel generating the excessive heat was analyzed with several methods before and after the experimental
run. It was found that the Lithium and Nickel content in the fuel had the natural isotopic composition before
the run, but after the 32 days run the isotopic composition has changed dramatically both for Lithium and
Nickel. Such a change can only take place via nuclear reactions. It is thus clear that nuclear reactions have
taken place in the burning process. This is also what can be suspected from the excessive heat being
generated in the process.

Although we have good knowledge of the composition of the fuel we presently lack detailed information on
the internal components of the reactor, and of the methods by which the reaction is primed. Since we are
presently not in possession of this information, we think that any attempt to explain the E-Cat heating
process would be too much hampered by the lack of this information, and thus we refrain from such
discussions.
In summary, the performance of the E-Cat reactor is remarkable. We have a device giving heat energy
compatible with nuclear transformations, but it operates at low energy and gives neither nuclear radioactive
waste nor emits radiation. From basic general knowledge in nuclear physics this should not be possible.
Nevertheless we have to relate to the fact that the experimental results from our test show heat production
beyond chemical burning, and that the E-Cat fuel undergoes nuclear transformations. It is certainly most
unsatisfying that these results so far have no convincing theoretical explanation, but the experimental results
cannot be dismissed or ignored just because of lack of theoretical understanding.
Moreover, the E-Cat results Cat invention has a large potential to become an important energy source. Further investigations are required to guide the interpretational work, and one needs in particular as a first step detailed knowledge of all parameters affecting the E-Cat operation. Our work will continue in that direction.

Tags: e-cat, lenr, Максим Калашников, ХЯС, инновации
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